Toby Ord

toby ord
2009 - present Research Fellow, Future of Humanity Institute, University of Oxford
2003 - 2009 BPhil, DPhil (Oxford)
1997 - 2002 BSc (Hons), BA (Melbourne)


The Precipice: Existential Risk and the Future of Humanity, (London: Bloomsbury), 2020. 

Moral Uncertainty (co-authored with Will MacAskill, and Krister Bykvist), (Oxford: OUP), 2020.
'Why maximize expected choice-worthiness?' (co-authored with William MacAskill). Noûs 54:327–353, 2020. doi:10.1111/nous.12264

'Statistical normalization methods in interpersonal and intertheoretic comparisons' (co-authored with Will MacAskill and Owen Cotton-Barratt). The Journal of Philosophy 117:61–95, 2020.

'An upper bound for the background rate of human extinction' (co-authored with Andrew Snyder-Beattie and Michael Bonsall). Scientific Reports 9:11054, 1–9, 2019. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-47540-7
'The moral imperative towards cost-effectiveness in global health'. Reprinted in Greaves and Pummer, eds. Effective Altruism: Philosophical Issues, (Oxford: OUP), 29–36, 2019. 


  • Existential risk 
  • The future of humanity
  • Effective altruism
  • Global priorities
  • Future generations
  • Longtermism